02
2015
12

Recalling arsenal from 152 years ago, the history of Changan Automobile Development(1)

  In the 1980s, mini-vans and mini-trucks popular in the north and south, "Chang" name deeply engraved in people's minds at the time. We talked about many domestic "Motor City", Chongqing indeed the oldest of which, can you imagine today's Changan Automobile traced the words already has 152 years of history yet? From the initial arsenal to civilian automobile manufacturers, Changan Automobile imitation of mature foreign cars from the beginning, after the foreign car brands of "marriage" to the current creation of independent brands, Changan Automobile and forensic way to create a Chinese auto industry never to some difficult course, today, let us review together the history of this century-and ordnance manufacturing background of the "young" car brand.

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Founded in 1862, formerly known as the Arsenal

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  Changan Automobile's history dating back to the late Qing Dynasty Westernization Movement, in November 1862, the British mandate Magri Li and Chinese officials Liu Zuo Yu founded the marine artillery office in Shanghai's Songjiang outside a temple. The gun was on the ocean bureau employs 50 workers, recruited foreign Carpenter acquired the required equipment to Hong Kong, with a very simple clay furnaces manufacturing flowering shells.

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  Marine artillery office was renamed in 1863 as the Bureau of Suzhou foreign guns, to 1865, Li Yang artillery office will move to Nanjing, Suzhou, on the outer lane Treasure broom door (now China Gate) East of the West at that time to establish a Chinese temple ruins the largest arsenal - Jinling manufacturing bureau. Li give great support Jinling manufacturing bureau, in the last years of his life, the Jinling manufacturing bureau insisted expanded year by year, to 1899, has become a company with nearly a thousand machines and 1,700 artisans large arsenal, it became China's major one of the production base of the arms.

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  Jinling manufacturing bureau was founded in order to suppress the Taiping Rebellion, but with the failure of the uprising, the Jinling manufacturing bureau for the production of weapons and equipment Huai Army. 1883 Sino-French War broke out, Jinling manufacturing bureau is working towards guns and ammunition to fight the invaders day and night, for several months does not put out the fire. Among them, the Jinling manufacturing bureau production cycle of the American Gatling guns is incredibly powerful, gun caliber 11 mm, there are 12 rifled barrel with 6-10 gun tube, the central axis of rotation to fill in a fixed missile launch, every minute continuous fired 350 rounds of ammunition, a range of up to 2,000 meters. In 1894, Sino-Japanese War broke out, Jinling manufacturing bureau has played a pivotal role in the war, it will never be famous.

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  1912 founding of the Republic, Jinling manufacturing bureau names continue to be followed, in 1929 changed its name to Jinling Arsenal and the original basis for further expansion of production, it became China's main ordnance enterprises. In 1937, "August Thirteenth" Battle of Shanghai broke out, Jinling Arsenal working day and night to support the front, the same year on November 12, Shanghai fall, Nanjing emergency. Jinling Arsenal received a National Government moved westward command, the whole factory workers around the clock to dismantle equipment, breaking numerous obstacles which lasted three months, and finally completed the feat westward, retained the hope for the future of fire resistance.

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    After Jinling Arsenal moved to Chongqing, in just three months to return to work and changed its name to the twenty-first Arsenal. In 1938, Zhuzhou, Hunan artillery technology research Inland Chongqing Department received orders, in September the same year moved to all employees of the Jialing River in Chongqing Jiangbei District Shima village empty water powered. In 1941, technology research at the artillery arsenal renamed the tenth, eleventh arsenal was renamed in 3152 after the liberation of plant (ie Jiangling machinery factory), 3152 plant continued orderly development, after the establishment of Chang'an Automobile plant made a great contribution. Between 1940 to 1941, Japanese planes repeatedly bombed arsenal of the twenty-first, the majority of workers still insist on the production of the front support for the war at the time of the national government provides 60 percent of the weapons and equipment.


    November 29, 1949, at the People's Liberation Army guns rumbling sound, Chiang Kai-shek from Taiwan to sabotage team dispatched by the more than 2,000 agents consisting of twenty first attempt to blow Arsenal. To protect the plants, the majority of workers in the twenty-first Arsenal at the underground Communist Party and director Yu Zhuo of the organization, and the KMT sabotage team launched a desperate contest and the final victory, the plant largely intact by the hands of the people of the nascent regime, become the new China Ordnance industry a powerful force.

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  In 1951, twenty-first Arsenal was renamed the Central Administration of State-owned Ordnance forty-five Liu Chang. In June, four or five Sixth Factory and 3152 Factory launched a "donate aircraft and artillery to support the Korean War," the boom vigorous, ten thousand workers and their families to donate a total of 61,300 yuan in cash and goods. As was the forty-five Sixth Factory production of large military equipment to China, as "Korean War" provides a lot of military supplies, but with the end of the war, declining national demand for military products, the plant capacity can not be effectively released.

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  Liu Chang let four or five true freshmen to usher in that field is a grand parade in March 1949 Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai and other central leaders held Xiyuan airport. Since China was not the ability to produce cars, the leaders of the armed forces parade riding also are from the Kuomintang troops seized the US military jeeps Willis, was recommended for a good car to show how the majesty of the Supreme People's Army commander, but Mao Tse-tung adhere to their views, he said: "take our own army forces seized booty parade hero not better it!." It was Chairman Mao's remarks inevitably inspire people determined to create China's own off-road vehicles.

The birth of China's first SUV

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  In 1957, the central government "military and civilian, to learn two sets of skills," the production approach to this policy as a guide direction, four or five Sixth Factory of more than 200 workers face shortage of funds in 1958, the absence of tools and molds, the last 3 months, with Willis M38A1 basis, one by one repeatedly mapping imitation parts, and finally the trial out of China's first SUV - Yangtze River card 46 off-road vehicles. At the same time, the Central Administration of State-owned ordnance forty-five Liu Chang was renamed Changan machine factory.

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  Yangtze River 46 Type SUV powered by a 2.2 liters water-cooled inline four-cylinder gasoline engine, a top speed of 115km / h, fuel consumption of 13.7 liters per hundred kilometers, the maximum gradeability of 30 degrees, the vehicle weight 1150kg, maximum load 440kg, can take 6 people . Interestingly, the car did not reverse gear, only forward open. Although the Yangtze River 46 off-road vehicles at the time there are still many problems, but after continuous improvement, when it produced 38.

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  Yangtze River 46 Type SUV production also carried out before 25,000 km of road testing. 1959 20 46 off-road vehicles from the Yangtze River Chaotianmen pier shipped to Beijing, as a team leader by the reading side car to attend the 10th anniversary of National Day military parade. As of 1963 cut-off, the Yangtze River 46 off-road vehicles of the 1390 total production. By the end of 1963, according to the directives of superiors, Changan factory car drawings and technical data will be transferred to the Beijing Automobile Works, the Yangtze River 46 off-road vehicles for the famous Beijing 212 research and development has laid a solid foundation.


Ordnance gradually converting civilian cars

From imitation to acquire foreign mature technology

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  Deng Xiaoping's military enterprises in 1978 to take advantage of the surplus production capacity of production of civilian products. April 1979, the central government "military and civilian, peacetime and wartime, the Israeli army mainly to keep people army" guiding principles. There Changan automobile production plant experienced in the early 1980s to buy from Guangzhou the two Suzuki light trucks, Changan factory had decided to disassemble the vehicle, after mapping imitation, but the technical staff will be surprised to find that the dismantling of the vehicle, Suzuki car truck technology was far beyond their imagination. Technical problems forced Changan Suzuki factory decided to introduce products and technologies.

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    After the initial contact with the Japanese company Suzuki, in the face of China on behalf of the Japanese automotive industry skepticism, Chang realized that Chinese auto industry wants to plant development, must take the difficulties of production technology. Negotiations technical staff that the three challenges facing the Changan factory is the engine, dashboard and cabin manufacturing. At that time Changan factory technical staff just two cars mapping drawings, machining the cab of great difficulty, Chongqing Changan Automobile repair factory invited 3403 factory workers hand-made cab struck, the most difficult instrument panel by the Changan factory own produce.


    When processing the dashboard, because there is no force large enough machine that workers had to use a crane to lift one side of the workpiece to reduce weight, then put the other side of the workpiece on the machine for processing, Changan plant can be described as an early stage of imitation abnormal hardships. In the first eight months of negotiations with Japan, the Changan factory will open two trucks assembled to the Great Hall, where the use of a car before the purchase of Japanese Suzuki light truck engines, all other parts made in China, and the other a contrast, with domestic engines, while the remaining parts after dismantling all Japanese Suzuki light truck restored again.

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  Secondary to negotiate on behalf of the Japanese side saw two car-like, almost surprised to speak, they can not imagine Changan factory in just three months time will be able to imitate the success of the kind of car, Japanese representative Therefore, Changan factory technical force admiration, which also works in cooperation with Changan Suzuki has added confidence and bargaining chips. After time, Changan Suzuki factory has purchased the production of Carry ST-90 series models were dismantling etc., mapping and design processes.

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  Suzuki Carry ST-90 in 1979 in the Japanese market, the car is divided into mini-vans and mini-trucks in two versions, equipped with a displacement of 543 ml and 797 ml three-cylinder engine four-cylinder engine, Changan plant considered 8 consecutive years ranked the best-selling compact car in Japan Suzuki Carry series is more suitable for China's national conditions at the time. October 1983, the first one kind of car test equipment is completed, after the Changan factory trial out of eight prototypes, like cars through road test performance after basically meet the design requirements.

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  March 2, 1984, when he was Premier Zhao Ziyang in Chongqing during the inspections, in the People's Great Hall devoted to a review of Changan mini truck plant trial, and made a "Chongqing also can engage in the Commonwealth of the production car" instructions. Shortly thereafter, Changan Suzuki factory and the company officially signed a technical cooperation agreement trade books, miniature cars and engines for cooperation projects. November 15, 1984, the first SC112 Changan brand mini vans and mini trucks SC110 official line, which also marked the official People Changan factory car production enterprises in transition from military enterprises.

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  Thanks to the low end of that time the demand for domestic passenger and cargo models, Changan brand mini-series models, once launched they quickly recognized by the market. At the same time, Changhe Aircraft Manufacturing Factory, Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing Factory, Shaanxi Aircraft Manufacturing Company and Jilin Automobile Industry Corporation, and other country at that time a number of automobile manufacturers gradually get Suzuki's technical support, or to produce their own generic way to Suzuki Carry prototype mini-cars. For a time, a wide variety of domestic mini vans and mini trucks popular in the north and south, and let the people of this model is the deepest impression of the shuttle in the streets around the country "micro surface" taxi.

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  Meanwhile Changan machine factory growing, Jiangling machinery factory (the original 3152 factory) in the production of engines and also began to try to produce cars, with Changan plant technology, Jiangling plant on December 30, 1984 successfully assembled three prototypes, where the two parts are assembled in Japan, one is the use of domestic parts, domestic parts like car first successful ignition.

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  From the end of 1984 the first car off the assembly line to the finished product after 1986, Changan factory in just two short years of time already broken through the one million production mark, Chang'an Automobile road this track. By the end of 1988, Jiangling plant after four years of unremitting efforts, the engine output has exceeded one million units mark, Jiangling plant engine production exceeded hundred thousand units also in 1994 can be achieved, sustainable development and Jiangling plant Changan factory is after Changan Automobile the establishment has laid a solid foundation.

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  Ministry of National Ordnance Industry and Chongqing Municipal Party Committee is very concerned about and support Changan mini-car production and research and development work in the Chongqing municipal government's strong support, Changan factory quickly became the pillar enterprises in Chongqing, the production of Changan brand mini cars have been at that time people as "Chongqing specialty." From October 1983 the first prototype completed a prototype, as of 1986, Changan brand mini car sales have been successfully broke through the ten thousand mark, at the time justifiably claim to be a great achievement.

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汽车之家

  1989, based on the SC110 Changan factory launched to build double-cab mini-trucks, followed by cargo box volume has been reduced, increased car rear seat makes the car more balanced in cargo, passenger capacity. May 18, 1990, Changan factory to the Eleventh Asian Games donated 10 million yuan worth of 40 Changan brand mini vans, which was also the Chongqing region to the Eleventh Asian Games the most generous donation gift.

Read more:

Recalling arsenal from 152 years ago, the history of Changan Automobile Development(1)

Recalling arsenal from 152 years ago, the history of Changan Automobile Development(2)

Recalling arsenal from 152 years ago, the history of Changan Automobile Development(3)


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